AMBROSE / DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER COLLECTION, Addendum 1
Earl K. Long Library
University of New Orleans
Size: 1.75 linear feet
locations: United States
Inclusive dates: 1890-1982
Summary: Original manuscript of Stephen E. Ambrose’s Eisenhower (2 vols.; New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983-1984). Includes emendations and typesetting instructions.
Source: Gift, 1984
Access: No restrictions
Copyright: Physical rights are retained by the Earl K. Long Library, University of New Orleans.
Citation: Ambrose / Dwight D. Eisenhower Collection, Addendum 1, Earl K. Long Library, University of New Orleans
Source: The following information has been quoted verbatim from "Contemporary Authors Online." Biography Resource Center. Gale Group. 1999.
Following a distinguished military career which culminated in his appointment as commander in chief of the Allied forces in Europe during the Second World War, Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected the thirty-fourth President of the United States. In both his military and political roles, Eisenhower was known as a superb administrator. He was, Ronald Steel commented in Saturday Review, "a man whose genius lay not in strategy . . . but in an ability to organize, delegate authority, and mediate." Townsend Hoopes of the Washington Post Book World called Eisenhower "tough, yet wise; decisive, yet careful; not intellectual, but smart. A natural leader. He understood and used power with considerable finesse, but with an innate appreciation of its limited efficacy. . . . He was, above all, a man of proportion who exerted himself to neutralize the extremes of his time." The eight years of the Eisenhower Administration were a time of economic prosperity, peace, and domestic tranquility.
Eisenhower first came to public attention in 1942 when General George C. Marshall chose him to be commander in chief of the Allied forces fighting Nazi Germany. Until that assignment, Eisenhower had served as a career army officer, rising to the rank of lieutenant colonel in the army's War Plans Division. "There he won the admiration of George Marshall," Steel explained. Marshall, impressed with Eisenhower's ability to moderate differences among subordinates, promoted him over 366 more senior army officers to the important post of overseeing Allied military efforts in Europe.
As commander in chief, Eisenhower was in charge of the joint military operations of the United States, Britain, and France in their fight against Nazi Germany. Running such a massive effort required the ability to satisfy the varied needs and expectations of foreign allies, domestic politicians, and the military leaders of three countries. Eisenhower, Hoopes remarked, "had a natural gift, unequalled by any of his contemporaries, for diplomatic persuasion." A writer for the Times Literary Supplement maintained that Eisenhower was "a superlative manager of men and an excellent chairman of committees." Gerald Clarke of Time called him "the ideal choice to lead contentious allies." By war's end, Eisenhower had become one of the best known and most popular figures in the United States.
This popularity led the Republican party in 1952 to nominate Eisenhower as its presidential candidate. He won election that year and reelection in 1956, serving a total of eight years as president. Cabell Phillips of the New York Times Book Review reported that Eisenhower was a popular president: "No President of recent times has enjoyed such sustained and uncritical affection." As Stephen E. Ambrose commented in the New Republic, "The 1950s saw peace and prosperity, no riots, relatively high employment, a growing GNP, virtually no inflation, no arms race, no great reforms, no great changes, low taxes, little government regulation of industry and commerce, and a president who was trusted and admired." "Dwight Eisenhower," Steel wrote, "was first in war, peace, and the hearts of his countrymen. . . . His reputation both as General and as President has become nearly as sacrosanct as the flag."
But at the time of his presidency, Eisenhower was often depicted in the press as a lazy and unsophisticated leader who did little because he was unaware of what to do. His casual and unassuming style, along with his reluctance to use governmental power except in extreme cases, also won Eisenhower severe criticism. "Most impartial students of public affairs today," Phillips remarked in 1967, "rate the Eisenhower Presidency rather low on the scale of vigor and accomplishment."
In later years, however, after access to Eisenhower's private papers and diaries had become available, critical evaluation of Eisenhower took a dramatic turn for the better. Eisenhower's casual leadership style, which had made him seem unconcerned about the nation's affairs to some observers, was reevaluated as a shrewd pose designed to keep his adversaries off balance. He was "as shrewd and calculating a mind as has ever won a war or run a country," Clarke observed. "What emerges from the recent studies of Eisenhower," Steel wrote, "is a man of extreme self-assurance, at ease with himself and his convictions. . . . A man who was skillful to the point of cunning."
When compared to the presidents who followed him, Eisenhower also fared well. Ambrose maintained that the initial hostility to Eisenhower came from comparing him to his immediate predecessors, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S Truman. But when compared to "his successors rather than his predecessors," wrote Ambrose, Eisenhower would be placed "in the top 10, if not the top five, of all our presidents." Eisenhower, "to judge from what followed rather than what preceded him, seems a man of decent instincts, incorruptible and unimpressed by titles, . . . and not noticeably afflicted with insecurities," Steel wrote.
Even Eisenhower's critics spoke kindly of him. Writing in the Saturday Review, Ernest R. May explained that "admirers and critics of President Eisenhower have held remarkably similar views of him. Both have thought of him as a kindly, good-natured fellow with sound instincts." Charles Burton Marshall of the New Republic found that "it is impossible not to like him. He is thorough, comprehensible, forthright, desirous of everyone's benefit, and mild rather than spiteful. . . . One wonders whether any President ever better epitomized his nation." Ambrose noted that Presidents Roosevelt and Eisenhower held the unique distinction of having "a higher reputation and broader popularity when they left office than when they entered." And Hoopes maintained that "as an enduringly popular and trusted American political leader, through thick and thin, [Eisenhower] was without peer in this century."
Family: Born October 14, 1890, in Denison, Tex.; died March 28, 1969; son of David and Ida Elizabeth (Stover) Eisenhower; married Mamie Geneva Doud, July 1, 1916 (deceased); children: Doud Dwight (deceased), John Sheldon Doud. Education: West Point Military Academy, graduate, 1915; Command and General Staff College, graduate, 1926; attended Army War College and Army Industrial College. Politics: Republican. Religion: Presbyterian. Avocational Interests: Golf, swimming, fishing, painting, playing bridge, watching western films, Civil War literature. Thirty-fourth president of the United States. U.S. Army, commissioned 2nd lieutenant, 1915, executive officer at Camp Gaillard, Canal Zone, 1922-24, member of American Battle Monuments Commission, 1927-29, assistant executive to assistant secretary of war, 1929-33; American Military Mission to Philippine Islands, assistant to General Douglas MacArthur, 1935-39; chief of staff of U.S. Third Army, 1941, appointed commanding general of European theater of operations, 1942, commander in chief of Allied forces, North Africa, 1942-43, supreme commander of Allied Expeditionary Force, 1943-45, Army chief of staff, 1945-48; Columbia University, New York, N.Y., president, 1948-52, on leave, 1950-51; Joint Chiefs of Staff, Washington, D.C., chairman ex-officio, 1950-51; NATO commander of Allied powers in Europe, 1951-52; elected president of the United States as Republican party candidate, 1952, reelected, 1956, retired, 1961.
Works by Eisenhower (listed chronologically)
Eisenhower's Own Story of the War: The Complete Report by the Supreme Commander, General Dwight D. Eisenhower, on the War in Europe from the Day of Invasion to the Day of Victory. New York: Arco, 1946. Also published as Report by the Supreme Commander to the Combined Chiefs of Staff on the Operations in Europe of the Allied Expeditionary Force, 6 June 1944 to 8 May 1945. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946.
Crusade in Europe. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1948.
The White House Years. Volume I: Mandate for Change, 1953-56. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1963. Volume II: Waging Peace, 1956-61, 1965.
Sir Winston Churchill: Champion of Freedom. Marble Hill Press, 1965.
At Ease: Stories I Tell to Friends. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967.
In Review, Pictures I've Kept: A Concise Pictorial Autobiography. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1969.
Letters to Mamie. Edited by John S. D. Eisenhower. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1978.
The Eisenhower Diaries. Edited by Robert H. Ferrell. New York: Norton, 1981.
Ike's Letters to a Friend. Edited with introduction by Robert Griffith. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1984.
Atoms for Peace: Dwight D. Eisenhower's Address to the United Nations. Introduction by Jack M. Holl and Roger M. Anders. Washington: National Archives and Records Administration, 1989.
The Churchill-Eisenhower Correspondence. Edited By Peter G. Boyle. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Office Files, 1953-1961. Edited by Robert E. Lester. Bethesda, MD: University Publications of America, 1990.
Eisenhower Speaks: Excerpts from the General's Speeches, with a Biographical Sketch. Edited by H. S. Bagger. Interallied, 1946.
Eisenhower Speaks: Dwight D. Eisenhower in His Messages and Speeches. Edited by Rudolph Treuenfels. New York: Farrar, Straus, 1948.
Peace with Justice: Selected Addresses. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961.
The Quotable Dwight D. Eisenhower. Edited by Elsie Gollagher and others. Anderson, SC: Droke, 1967.
The Papers of Dwight D. Eisenhower: The War Years. Edited by Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. and others. 5 vols. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1970.
Selected Speeches of Dwight David Eisenhower, Thirty-fourth President of the United States, Selected from Three Principal Periods of His Life: As Supreme Allied Commander in Europe during the War Years, as Supreme NATO Commander, and as President. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970.
Dear General: Eisenhower's Wartime Letters to Marshall. Edited by Joseph Patrick Hobbs. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press, 1971.
Ike: A Great American. Edited by Don Ramsey, with an introduction by Mamie Doud Eisenhower. Hallmark, 1972.
Eisenhower Declassified. Edited by V. Pinkley and J. F. Scheer. Grand Rapids, MI: Revell, 1979.
The Declassified Eisenhower. Edited by Blanche Wiesen Cook. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1981.
The Wisdom of Dwight D. Eisenhower: Quotations from Ike's Speeches and Writings, 1939-1969. Selected by Stephen E. Ambrose. New Orleans, LA: Eisenhower Center, 1990.
Books about Eisenhower by Stephen E. Ambrose (listed chronologically)
Ambrose, Stephen E. D-Day: The Climactic Battle of World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994.
Ambrose, Stephen E. Eisenhower. Vol. 1: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890-1952. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983. Vol. 2: The President, 1984.
Ambrose, Stephen E. Eisenhower and Berlin, 1945: The Decision to Halt at the Elbe. New York: Norton, 1967.
Ambrose, Stephen E. Ike: Abilene to Berlin; The Life of Dwight D. Eisenhower from His Childhood in Abilene, Kansas, through His Command of the Allied Forces in Europe in World War II. New York: Harper & Row, 1973.
Ambrose, Stephen E. Ike's Spies: Eisenhower and the Espionage Establishment. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1981.
Ambrose, Stephen E. The Supreme Commander: The War Years of General Dwight D. Eisenhower. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971.
Ambrose, Stephen E. The Victors: Eisenhower and His Boys, the Men of World War II. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998.
Selected Books about Eisenhower by Other Authors
Benson, Ezra. Cross-Fire: The Eight Years with Eisenhower. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1962.
Childs, Marquis W. Eisenhower, Captive Hero: A Critical Study of the General and the President. New York: Harcourt, 1958.
Collection of Manuscripts and Archives in the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas. Washington: U.S. National Archives and Records Service, 1970.
Davis, Kenneth. Soldier of Democracy. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1945.
Divine, Robert A. Eisenhower and the Cold War. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.
Dockrill, Saki. Eisenhower's New Look National Security Policy, 1953-1961. Houndsmill, Hampshire, Eng.: Macmillan Press, 1996.
Donovan, Robert. Eisenhower: The Inside Story. New York: Harper, 1956.
Durham, J. C. A Moderate among Extremists. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1981.
Eisenhower, David. Eisenhower at War, 1943-1945. New York: Vintage Books, 1986.
Eisenhower, Dwight D. The White House Years. Volume I: Mandate for Change, 1953-56. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1963. Volume II: Waging Peace, 1956-61. 1965.
Eisenhower, Dwight D. The Eisenhower Diaries. Edited by Robert H. Ferrell. New York: Norton, 1981.
Eisenhower, Dwight D. Crusade in Europe. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1948.
Eisenhower, John S. D. Strictly Personal. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1974.
Ewald, William Bragg, Jr. Eisenhower the President: Crucial Days, 1951-1960. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981.
Gelb, Norman. Ike and Monty: General at War. New York: Morrow, 1994.
Gunther, John. Eisenhower: The Man and the Symbol. New York: Harper, 1952.
Hatch, Alden. General Ike. New York: Holt, 1952.
Hatch, Alden. Young Ike. New York: Messner, 1953.
Hicks, Wilson. This Is Ike. New York: Holt, 1952.
Historical Materials in the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library. Washington: U.S. National Archives and Records Service, 1972.
Lasby, Clarence G. Eisenhower's Heart Attack: How Ike Beat Heart Disease and Held on to the Presidency. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1997.
Lee, R. A. Eisenhower. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 1981.
Lovelace, D. W. Ike Eisenhower: Statesman and Soldier of Peace. New York: Crowell, 1956.
Miller, Merle. Ike the Soldier: As They Knew Him. New York: Putnam, 1987.
Pusey, Merlo. Eisenhower, the President. New York: Macmillan, 1956.
Rovere, Richard. The Eisenhower Years: Affairs of State. New York: Farrar, Straus, 1956.
Smith, Walter. Eisenhower's Six Great Decisions: Europe, 1944-45. New York: Longmans, Green, 1956.
Stassen, Harold and Marshall Houts. Eisenhower: Turning the World Toward Peace. St. Paul, MN: Merrill and Magnus, 1990.
Taylor, Allan, ed. What Eisenhower Thinks. New York: Crowell, 1952.
Vexler, Robert, ed. Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1890-1969: Chronology, Documents, Bibliographical Aids. Dobbs Ferry, NY: Oceana, 1970.
Weigley, Russell F. Eisenhower's Lieutenants. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981.
List of Series
Series I. Eisenhower. Vol. 1: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890-1952.
Series II. Eisenhower. Vol. 2: The President
Series I: Eisenhower. Vol. 1: Soldier, General of the Army, President-Elect, 1890-1952.
298-1 Front matter.
298-2 Photograph captions.
298-3 Chapter One. “Pennsylvania, Texas, Kansas; 1741-1900.”
298-4 Chapter Two. “Abilene; 1900-1911.”
298-5 Chapter Three. “West Point; 1911-1915.”
298-6 Chapter Four. “San Antonio, Gettysburg; 1915-1918.”
298-7 Chapter Five. “Camp Meade, Panama, Leavenworth, Washington; 1919-1928.”
298-8 Chapter Six. “Paris, Washington; 1928-1935.”
298-9 Chapter Seven. “Manila; 1936-1939.”
298-10 Chapter Eight. “Fort Lewis, Fort Sam Houston; 1940-1941.”
298-11 Chapter Nine. “Washington; December 14, 1941—June 23, 1942.”
298-12 Chapter Ten. “London; June 24—September 15, 1942.”
298-13 Chapter Eleven. “London, Gibraltar, Algiers; September 16—December 31, 1942.”
298-14 Chapter Twelve. “Algiers, Casablanca, Constantine, January 1—May 13, 1943.”
298-15 Chapter Thirteen. “Algiers, Malta, Sicily; May 14—September 8, 1943.”
298-16 Chapter Fourteen. “Algiers, Naples, Cairo; September 9—December 31, 1943.”
298-17 Chapter Fifteen. “Washington, London, Bushy Park; January 1—May 15, 1944.”
298-18 Chapter Sixteen. “Bushy Park, Southwick House, Normandy; May 16— July 21, 1944.”
298-19 Chapter Seventeen. “London, Normandy, Paris; July 22—September 1, 1944.”
298-20 Chapter Eighteen. “London, Normandy, Versailles, Reims; September 2—December 15, 1944.”
298-21 Chapter Nineteen. “Versailles, Verdun, Reims; December 16, 1944— March 7, 1945.”
298-22 Chapter Twenty. “Reims; March 7—May 7, 1945.”
298-23 Chapter Twenty-One. “Frankfurt, Berlin, London, Washington, Moscow; May 8—December 3, 1945.”
298-24 Chapter Twenty-Two. “Washington; December 1945—May 1947.”
298-25 Chapter Twenty-Three. “Washington; June 1947—May 1948.”
298-26 Chapter Twenty-Four. “New York; June 1948—December 1950.”
298-27 Chapter Twenty-Five. “Paris; January 1951—May 1952.”
298-28 Chapter Twenty-Six. “Abilene, New York, Denver, Chicago; June— August 1952.”
298-29 Chapter Twenty-Seven. “U.S.A.; September—November 1952.”
298-30 Notes, Chapters One - Fourteen.
298-31 Notes, Chapters Fifteen - Twenty-Seven.
298-33 - 298-36 Index.
Series II: Eisenhower. Vol. 2: The President.
298-37 Front matter.
298-38 Photograph captions.
298-39 Chapter One. “President-Elect; November 1952—January 11, 1953.”
298-40 Chapter Two. “Inauguration; January 12—January 20, 1953.”
298-41 Chapter Three. “Getting Started; January 21—March 31, 1953.”
298-42 Chapter Four. “The Chance for Peace; April 1—June 30, 1953.”
298-43 Chapter Five. “Peace in Korea, Coup in Japan; July 1—September 30, 1953.”
298-44 Chapter Six. “Atoms for Peace; October 1—December 31, 1953.”
298-45 Chapter Seven. “Bricker, McCarthy, Bravo, Vietnam; January 1—May 7, 1954.”
298-46 Chapter Eight. “McCarthy, Guatemala, SEATO; May 8—September 8, 1954.”
298-47 Chapter Nine. “Quemoy and Matsu, Off-Year Elections; September 3— December 31, 1954.”
298-48 Chapter Ten. “The Formosa Doctrine; January 1—June 20, 1955.”
298-49 Chapter Eleven. “Open Skies; June—September 1955.”
298-50 Chapter Twelve. “Heart Attack; September—December 1955.”
298-51 Chapter Thirteen. “Recovery; January—March 1956.”
298-52 Chapter Fourteen. “The Tyranny of the Weak; April—September 1956.”
298-53 Chapter Fifteen. “Election, Suez, Hungary; September 19—December 31, 1956.”
298-54 Chapter Sixteen. “The Eisenhower Doctrine; January—July 1957.”
298-55 Chapter Seventeen. “The High Cost of Defense, Nuclear Testing, Civil Rights; January—July 1957.”
298-56 Chapter Eighteen. “Little Rock, Sputnik; August—November 1957.”
298-57 Chapter Nineteen. “Problems: Stroke, Dulles, Disarmament, Space Race; December 1957—April 1958.”
298-58 Chapter Twenty. “Lebanon, Sherman Adams, Disarmament, Quemoy amd Matsu, Other Woes; May—September 1958.”
298-59 Chapter Twenty-One. “Elections, Test-Ban Talks, Berlin, Fidel; October 1958—February 1959.”
298-60 Chapter Twenty-Two. “A Revival; February—June 1959.”
298-61 Chapter Twenty-Three. “Traveling for Peace; July—December 1959.”
298-62 Chapter Twenty-Four. “High Hopes and Unhappy Realities; January— June 1960.”
298-63 Chapter Twenty-Five. “A Bad Summer and a Terrible Fall; July 1— November 9, 1960.”
298-64 Chapter Twenty-Six. “Transition; November 9, 1960—January 20, 1961.”
298-65 Chapter Twenty-Seven. “The Eisenhower Presidency: An Assessment; 1953—1961.”
298-66 Chapter Twenty-Eight. “Elder Statesman; January 1961—November 1963.”
298-67 Chapter Twenty-Nine. “Johnson, Goldwater, Vietnam; November 23, 1963—February 1968.”
298-68 Chapter Thirty. “Taps; March 1968—March 28, 1969.”
298-70 Notes, Chapters One - Fifteen.
298-71 Notes, Chapters Sixteen - Thirty.
298-73 - 298-75 Index.
Ambrose, Stephen E.
Eisenhower, Dwight D.