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What is Research?: Evaluating Sources

What does it mean?

CRAAP is an acronym designed to help you remember how to evaluate resources...

Currency: how timely is the information?

When was the information published/posted?

Has the information been revised or updated recently?

Does your topic require current information?

Relevance: how important is the information for your needs?

Does the information relate to your topic?

Who is the intended audience?

Is the information at an appropriate level?

Authority: who created this source?

Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?

Is the author qualified to write on the topic? (What are his/her credentials?)

Does the url reveal anything about the author or source?

Accuracy: how reliable and truthful is the content?

Is the information supported by evidence?

Has the information been reviewed or refereed?

Can you verify any of the information in another source or from personal knowledge?

Purpose: why does this information exist?

Does this information exist to inform, teach, sell, entertain, or persuade?

Does the language or tone seem unbiased and free of emotion?

Is the information fact, opinion, or propaganda?


Modified from the Meriam Library (California State University, Chico) handout.

CRAAP Worksheets

To help you out, here are a couple of CRAAP worksheets that you can print out and use when you want to evaluate a source.


Apply the CRAAP test to the following resources.  Which resources would YOU use?